Spotted Salamander Symbiosis: Content Primer



For further study

  • Obligate and facultative relationships
    Symbiotic relationships may also be described as obligate (completely dependent on the relationship) and facultative (not completely dependent on one another).
  • Immune system development
    How does the immune system develop in early stages of development?
  • Innate and adaptive immunity
    Review innate immunity and adaptive immunity.



  • Spotted Salamander Migration and Reproduction
    This Maryland Sea Grant video shows the spring migration of the spotted salamander and parts of the reproductive cycle in a vernal pool in the Frederick Municipal Forest, Frederick County, MD.
  • The Natural Heritage of Indiana: Life in the Water
    This documentary takes viewers into water habitats, where they will witness the diversity of life that exists. Sometimes, the life cycles take place on a nearly microscopic level. Elsewhere, the program reveals prehistoric looking fish and amphibians that still inhabit the landscape, as well as waterfowl. Vernal pool footage: 10:42–20:00 
  • Algal Endosymbiosis in Salamanders
    An overview of a study of intracellular invasion of green algae in a salamander host ( Kerney et al. 2011)
  • PBS News Hour: A New Genetic Map That Could Make Your Skin Crawl
    Scientists with the Human Microbiome Project have completed the first microbial map of healthy humans. Jeffrey Brown speaks with Dr. Eric Green, director of the National Human Genome Research Institute.
  • BBC's The Trials of Life: Episode 7, Living Together
    David Attenborough looks at how, for better or worse, many animals form surprising partnerships. Birds rid larger animals of itchy hangers-on, hermit crabs enlist stinging anemones to repel predatory octopuses and others use their hosts in less benign ways. Note: video no longer available
  • Ant and Butterfly Symbiosis
    A National Geographic video on the symbiotic relationship between ants and butterfly caterpillars.
  • Symbiotic Relationships: Mutualism, Commensalism & Parasitism
    In this lesson, learn the many types of symbiosis in biology, and how these relationships can have a positive, negative, or neutral effect on the individual species.
  • Jonathan Bird's Blue World: Symbiosis In The Sea
    In this webisode Jonathan explores different types of symbiosis in the ocean, including mutualism, commensalism and parasitism, and how animals use it for survival.


The Blue Crab: Callinectes Sapidus

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