Spotted Salamander Symbiosis: Content Primer



  1. Symbiosis: When Living Together Is Win-win.” Cosmos. Cosmos Magazine, n.d. Web.
  2. Pollan, Michael. “Some of My Best Friends Are Germs.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 18 May 2013. Web. 02 Mar. 2015.
  3. Brown, Jeffrey. “A New Genetic Map That Could Make Your Skin Crawl.” PBS. PBS, n.d. Web.
  4. Paracer, Surindar, Vernon Ahmadjian, and Vernon Ahmadjian. Symbiosis: An Introduction to Biological Associations. New York: Oxford UP, 2000. Print.
  5. Kim, Eunsoo, Yuan Lin, Ryan Kerney, Lili Blumenberg, and Cory Bishop. “Phylogenetic Analysis of Algal Symbionts Associated with Four North American Amphibian Egg Masses.” PLOS ONE. PLOS ONE, n.d. Web.
  6. Orr, Henry, Ph.D. “Note on the Development of Amphibians, chiefly concerning the Central Nervous System; with Additional Observations on the Hypophysis, Mouth, and the Appendages and Skeleton of the Head.Note on the Development of Amphibians. (1888): 295–324. Print.
  7. Gilbert, Perry W. “The Alga-Egg Relationship in Ambystoma maculatum, A Case of Symbiosis.” Ecology 25.3 (1944): 366. Web.
  8. ITIS Standard Report Page: Oophila.” ITIS Standard Report Page: Oophila. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Mar. 2015.
  9. Kerney, Ryan. “Symbioses between Salamander Embryos and Green Algae.” Symbiosis 54.3 (2011): 107–17. Web.
  10. Graham, E. R., S. A. Fay, A. Davey, and R. W. Sanders. “Intracapsular algae provide fixed carbon to developing embryos of the salamander Ambystoma maculatum.” Journal of Experimental Biology 216.3 (2013): 452–59. Web.
  11. Burns, John A., Huanjia Zhang, Elizabeth Hill, Eunsoo Kim, and Ryan Kerney. “Transcriptome analysis illuminates the nature of the intracellular interaction in a vertebrate-algal symbiosis.” eLife, 2017;6:e22054.

The Blue Crab: Callinectes Sapidus

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