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In Maryland, oyster restoration projects have attempted to enhance the Chesapeake Bay's wild oyster population and restore critical ecosystem services provided by oysters. Oyster aquaculture, paired with restoration, is a sustainable alternative or complement to wild harvest that can reduce fishing pressure on wild populations, contribute to the ecological role of oysters in the bay, and provide a more rel iable source of income for those involved. The potential of oyster aquaculture in Maryland, however, is hindered by resistance to aquaculture by Maryland's wild oyster harvesters, hereafter referred to as watermen. My research aims to investigate this resistance and address issues related to watermen's involvement in oyster aquaculture. My project involves two objectives with multiple hypotheses. The first objective is to provide a detailed description of who is participating in oyster aquaculture in Maryland, through general demographics, self-identification as watermen, and type of aquaculture involvement. Though basic, the inquiry is important in enhancing the understanding of Maryland aquaculture. I will also investigate the role of livelihood diversification in participation. I predict that watermen who have already demonstrated modes of livelihood diversification will be more likely to participate in aquaculture than those who have not. My second objective is to describe the reasoning behind individual decisions to participate in oyster aquaculture. I anticipate that several themes, related to support and resistance toward oyster aquaculture, will emerge through interviews. I predict that those participating in aquaculture do so as a means of increased resilience. In this case, resilience may be considered as it relates to a variety of unknowns, including an unreliable wild oyster population, changes in oyster management and policy, as well as a means of preparing for future impacts of climate change. I also expect that themes will exist among those who choose not to participate, with emphases on heritage associated with the wild fishery, as well as distrust of management, policy, and enforcement. Lastly, I will investigate the role of social networks in influencing watermen's participation in aquaculture. I will attempt to identify patterns in willingness to participate in aquaculture related to influence of certain well-connected or powerful actors. I predict that the influence of central figures will be present in network trends of participation. Through this project, I expect to provide a rich and descriptive representation of Maryland's oyster aquaculture industry, as well as details regarding how social networks within Maryland's oyster industry influence individual decisions to participate in aquaculture. This is relevant to management, as it highlights current aquaculture development targets and how the industry can benefit through efforts focused on those not participating. It will also contribute to social network analyses by developing information regarding current, and potentially future, aquatic livelihoods. Additionally, this project will serve as the starting point to extended dissertation work focusing on oyster aquaculture in the Chesapeake Bay.
Michaelis, AK; Walton, WC; Webster, DW; Shaffer, LJ. 2020. The role of ecosystem services in the decision to grow oysters: A Maryland case study Aquaculture529 . doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735633. UM-SG-RS-2020-08.