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Using paleoecological techniques, to reconstruct the history of the trophic structure of the Chesapeake Bay over the past 2000 years, in order to compare the effects of changes in climate during the approximate 200 year Medieval Warm Period which occurred about 1000 years ago and the Little Ice Age which lasted for a few centuries following the warm period, with anthropogenic changes including deforestation, agriculture and urbanization which have occurred over the past two to three centuries.
Sowers, AA; Brush, GS. 2014. A Paleoecological History of the Late Precolonial and Postcolonial Mesohaline Chesapeake Bay Food Web Estuaries and Coasts37(6):1506 -1515. doi:10.1007/s12237-014-9781-x. UM-SG-RS-2014-28.
Kemp, WM; Boynton, WR; Adolf, JE; Boesch, DF; Boicourt, WC; Brush, G; Cornwell, JC; Fisher, TR; Glibert, PM; Hagy, JD; Harding, LW; Houde, ED; Kimmel, DG; Miller, WD; Newell, RIE; Roman, MR; Smith, EM; Stevenson, JC. 2005. Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions. Marine Ecology Progress Series303:1 -29. doi:10.3354/meps303001. UM-SG-RS-2005-10.