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Density-dependent indirect effects: apparent mutualism and apparent competition coexist in a two-prey system.
Long, WC; Gamelin, EF; Johnson, EG; Hines, AH
A predator consuming multiple prey species usually causes indirect effects. Apparent mutualism results when multiple prey species reduce predation risk for each other by altering a predator's functional response. Short-term apparent competition occurs when multiple prey species increase predation risks for each other through the numerical response, i.e. increasing the predator's birth rate, or aggregative response, i.e. attracting a higher density of predators. Our objectives in this study were to determine the aggregative response and 2-prey functional response of a predator and to examine indirect effects over a range of prey densities. We used the clam Macoma balthica and juvenile blue crabs Callinectes sapidus as prey for adult blue crabs. In laboratory experiments, we determined the single-prey functional responses of the crabs to each prey species and the 2-prey functional response. We combined the 2-prey functional response with the known blue crab aggregative response to clams to estimate field predation rates. Our model predicts that at low prey densities, clams and juvenile blue crabs exhibit apparent mutualism, whereas at high clam densities, this relation switches to short-term apparent competition. These unexpected results highlight the need to incorporate multiple aspects of predation at multiple scales when considering indirect effects.
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