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Vector science and integrated vector management in bioinvasion ecology: conceptual frameworks.
Carlton, JT; Ruiz, GM
The unintentional transfer of species by human activities is the primary driver of biological invasions, which in turn have become a major force of ecological and economic change operating on a global scale. Tens of thousands of species of terrestrial, freshwater, and marine organisms are moved accidentally around the world every day by myriad human-mediated vectors. With steadily increasing global trade and with a steadily increasing number of people moving around t he world, the number and rate of such accidental movements show no sign of decline. Without due attention to the means by which species gain access to new regions, the number of new successful invasions of exotic species (i.e., established nonnative populations) will continue to increase around the world and in lakes, rivers, and the ocean. Clearly the easiest means to prevent new invasions is vector interception or disruption, whereby the capacity of the vector to move species is greatly constrained. Fundamental to vector management is an understanding of vector operation and the development of a conceptual framework through which vectors can be characterized and quantified adequately to guide effective interception strategies. We set out that framework here. We also set forth an expanded concept of integrated vector management (IVM) as a necessary component of invasion management theory and science.
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