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The overall goal of the proposed research is to measure quantitatively the pattern and effects of NIS, using identical methods, on various spatial scales. The project is designed explicitly to support information needs of risk assessment (e.g., Hayes 1997; Hayes and Hewitt 1998) and management decisions, providing parallel data on invasions for two continents. Thus, this advances a long-term goal to develop international approaches to a truly global problem. Specific goals are: (1) Measure the number, abundance, and spatial distribution of nonindigenous species in the fouling community within multiple bays. (2) Compare invasion measures among multiple bays, continental margins, and continents. (3) Measure the ecological effects of invading species across multiple bays. (4) Test for consistent effects of habitat characteristics (e.g., salinity), vector importance, and taxonomic group on both the pattern and consequences of NIS invasions among bays. (5) Measure the effect of sampling area, sampling time, and sampling method on NIS detection in multiple bays. (6) Develop a protocol for standardized measurement of invasion patterns and rates in fouling communities.