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The overall goal of this research is to measure the patterns of delivery and viability of species transferred among U.S. ports in the ballast water of domestic ship traffic. We propose to measure directly the volume of ballast water delivered to selected Atlantic ports from other domestic ports, the abundance and diversity of organisms associated with that ballast water, and the survival of these organisms during transit and upon arrival.
Fofonoff, PW, Ruiz, GM; Steves, B; Carlton, JT. 2003. In ships or on ships? Mechanisms of transfer and invasion for nonnative species to the coasts of North America. Ruiz, GM; Carlton, JT, eds. Invasive Species: Vectors and Management Strategies. Island Press.Chapter 7:152 -182. UM-SG-RS-2003-33.