Science Serving Maryland's Coasts

Michelle (Rau) Embry, Duke University

Class Year: 

Project Title: 

Effects of the herbicide 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the expression of CYP2M1 and CYP2K1 in the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus


In this study, the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, was examined in a time controlled-in vivo dose response study (TC-DR). The fish were exposed initially to a positive control of clofibrate, and then, in a separate expereiment, to 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D). Effects of the compound on the expression of CYP2M1 (LMC1) and CYP2K1 (LMC2) isozymes were examined. In general, results were inconclusive, with slight trends towards induction in the female fish with clofibrate. Further studies must be conducted in order to correctly determine the response of in vivo exposure on Fundulus heteroclitus. It was found that this species is very sensitive to clofibrate, with doses of 10 ppm causing high mortality. However, differences in constitutive expression of LMC1 and LMC2 in male fish due to maturity level led to high variability between animals and replicate samples.